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Fetal Genital Anatomy



We  described in detail with histology, computer 3-D reconstruction, immunohistochemistry and Optical projection tomography the anatomy of the human male and female genitalia.   This work has lead to a more precise anatomical understanding of the surgical anatomy of the normal male and the hypospadiac penis. 


Translation of this work to surgical reonstruction of the congenital penile curvature in patients with and without hypospadias has lead to the widespread use of the “midline dorsal plication technique” .  

  Antomical studies of female anatomy has lead to nerve preservation techniques for feminizing genitoplasty and rational for partial urogenital mobilzation for patients with severe urogenital sinus anomalies.








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